A specific learning disorder with impairment in mathematics (dyscalculia) is an innate difficulty in learning and comprehending mathematics. Children who have a specific learning disorder with impairment in mathematics (dyscalculia) have trouble understanding numbers, learning how to manipulate numbers, learning mathematical facts, and a number of other related difficulties.

Dyscalculia can be defined as:

… a condition that affects the ability to acquire arithmetical skills. Learners with dyscalculia may have difficulty understanding simple number concepts, lack an intuitive grasp of numbers, and have problems learning number facts and procedures. Even if they produce a correct answer or use a correct method, they do so mechanically and without confidence.

The severity of mathematical impairment differs depending on the individual. Although it can be argued that many of the defining features of a specific learning disorder with impairment in mathematics (dyscalculia) can also be seen in children who do poorly in mathematics, it is the degree of these difficulties and the resistance to remedial intervention that set children with dyscalculia apart from others with learning difficulties.

When looking at identifying a Specific Learning Disorder with impairment in mathematics (dyscalculia), deficits in one or both of the following key academic areas are usually present:

• Difficulties mastering number sense, number facts or calculation (e.g., has poor understanding of numbers, their magnitude, and relationships; counts on fingers to add single-digit numbers instead of recalling the math fact as peers do; gets lost in the midst of arithmetic computation and may switch procedures).
• Difficulties with mathematical reasoning (e.g., has severe difficulty applying mathematical concepts, facts, or procedures to solve quantitative problems).

## Specific learning disorder in mathematics (dyscalculia) across the school years

Children who have a specific learning disorder with impairment in mathematics (dyscalculia) will show some or many of the difficulties listed below. They may not display all of these characteristics.

#### Pre/Lower Primary School

• Difficulties organising objects and sets of items in a logical way
• Difficulties recognising printed numbers
• Poor counting skills and knowledge of counting strategies
• Difficulties using counting strategies (counting in 2s, 5s etc.)
• Difficulties with mastering number knowledge (recognising how many items make a set without counting)
• Difficulties in using effective counting strategies for addition (counting all instead of counting on)
• Difficulties decomposing numbers
• Difficulties remembering arithmetic facts

#### Mid/Upper Primary School

• Counting skills mastered but persistent use of ineffective strategies for calculation
• Difficulty telling the time and recalling times tables
• Delays in the retrieval of overlearned maths facts
• Difficulties attending to numerical operator (e.g. +,-,x, ÷)
• Difficulties in applying concepts of borrowing and carrying (place value)
• Difficulties with measurement and understanding spatial relationships
• Difficulties with multi-step calculation procedures
• Increased anxiety and negative attitude towards maths

#### Secondary School

• Difficulties learning maths concepts beyond basic number facts
• Difficulties with mental maths
• Difficulties finding more than one way to solve a maths problem
• Delays in learning and recognising maths vocabulary
• Difficulties in reading and interpreting graphs, charts and maps
• Poor perception of the passage of time and difficulties sticking to a schedule
• Poor budgeting skills
• Difficulties with spatial directions ## In this section

I have always struggled with maths. I have trouble reading a clock, figuring out change, and other basic maths skills. Numbers make me feel anxious, and that is hard because you need to use maths all the time.